Urbanization - the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration.
Urbanization is closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization.
Multiplier Effect - When this multiplier exceeds one, the enhanced effect on national income.
Proposed by Richard Kahn in 1930 and published in 1931.
The multiplier effect is a tool used by governments to attempt to stimulate aggregate demand. This can be done in a period of recession or economic uncertainty. The money invested by a government creates more jobs, which in turn will mean more spending and so on.
John Maynard Keynes - English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946).
He greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions.
American Reform Judaism - refers to various beliefs, practices and organizations associated with the Reform Jewish movement in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere.
In general, it maintains that Judaism and Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the surrounding culture.
Many branches of Reform Judaism hold that Jewish law should be interpreted as a set of general guidelines rather than as a list of restrictions whose literal observance is required of all Jews.
Clarence Darrow - United States lawyer famous for his defense of lost causes (1857-1938)
NARRATOR: As was customary in Tennessee courtrooms, a local preacher opened the trial with a prayer. "We come this morning, our Divine Father," the preacher intoned, "that we may seek from thee that wisdom to so transact the business of this court." Every day, there would be a new prayer. Every day, Clarence Darrow would object. Every day, the judge overruled him.
When Darrow moved to have the indictment against Scopes thrown out, declaring that religious liberty must be defended, the judge rejected the motion. Darrow's strategy centered on calling expert witnesses who could testify on the meaning of evolution and its compatibility with the creation story in the Bible.
MICHAEL KAZIN: Darrow had wanted to put a whole array of scientists on the stand to testify about Darwinism, about evolution- a lot of whom, by the way, were liberal Christians. They didn't want agnostic, atheist scientists. They wanted Christian scientists who would say you could be a Christian and believe in evolution at the same time.
Republican Motherhood - identifies the concept related to women's roles as mothers in the emerging United States before, during, and after the...