The Main Theories Of How The Process Of Aging Works

3398 words - 14 pages

The Main Theories of How the Process of Aging Works

This report outlines the main theories of how the process of aging works. Since researchers have not discovered a universally-accepted theory of aging, the theories discussed are potential explanations of how we age. The likelihood of each hypothesis is considered roughly equal. The different theories discussed focus on the workings of different parts of the body, from the molecular level of DNA mutations and replication, to the organism level of becoming “worn out.” Aging is a very complex and gradual process, and its ongoing operation is present to some degree in all individuals. It is a journey to the maturity, as well as to the degeneration of the body. Because aging affects every part of the body, many different steps are involved and various types of reactions occur. Changes in DNA take place, which can and often do affect the way the body functions; harmful genes are sometimes activated, and necessary ones deactivated. A decrease in important body proteins like hormones and certain types of body cells is almost inevitable. These, among many, are characteristic changes that take place in our bodies as time moves on and aging continues. At present, a universal explanation for how we age or why we age does not exist, but there are many theories to explain this puzzle, and they are supported by continuous research. In this report, some of the how theories of aging will be examined. Among them are theories concerning spontaneous mutations, damage from free radicals, the clock gene, cellular aging, a weakened immune system, wear and tear, and hormonal and neuroendocrinous changes. Spontaneous Mutations The spontaneous mutations theory, also known as the somatic mutation hypothesis, states that the crucial events that cause aging are mutations. These are changes in a cell=s DNA, which are passed on to daughter cells during mitosis. Since genes on DNA code for specific proteins, mutated genes may produce defective proteins, which do not work properly. Many proteins can be affected, such as enzymes, proteins comprising muscle tissue, and a recently discovered type of protein called transcription factors, which bind to DNA and regulate the individual activities of genes themselves. Physical mutagens are substances that increase the chance of mutation and include such physical phenomena as x-rays and radioactivity from radium. The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan are examples of physical mutagens that caused an increase in the number of cases of leukemia. Certain chemicals and radiation cause mutations to occur in DNA by giving off high energy particles. These particles collide with the DNA and knock off atoms of the DNA randomly, damaging it. DNA consists of sequences of four possible nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, paired so that adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine. As cells repair the...

Find Another Essay On The Main Theories of How the Process of Aging Works

The worries of aging Essay

893 words - 4 pages are thin!")" indicates he is terrified of what will happen if people see his balding head or his slim and aging body. He feels that people will think he is old and useless and that they will talk about him behind his back. Another suggestion of aging and how it anguishes the emotions is the stereotype old men have of faltering when trying to communicate ideas with people. The repetition of words the narrator uses like "vision and revision

The Aging of Hamlet Essay

1140 words - 5 pages The Aging of Hamlet "Books are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a potency of life in them to be as active as that soul was whose progeny they are"  Milton   I Read Hamlet the other day.  It had changed considerably since I last read it.  Hamlet himself was somewhat thinner, I thought; but he had also mellowed considerably; he was rather less cynical and a little more tolerant than he had been.  Polonius

The Physiological Effects on Aging by Exercise: (predominance of aerobics)and the correlation in slowing the aging process

2914 words - 12 pages slow the aging process.This paper will present studies indicating the affect exercise has on the human body and how it is useful in keeping us at our optimum physical and mental health. For now, aging is inevitable. Physiologically, we age because individual cells are preprogrammed to overwork and then self-destruct. The process becomes apparent in a comparison of old and young skin cells. Although both types contain the same array of genes, in

The Life, Works, Theories, and Analysis of Plato

1809 words - 7 pages statesmen. Plato spent the rest of his life at the Academy until dying painlessly in his sleep around the age of 80.Plato's works can be divided into three main periods. These include the early, middle, and later periods of his writing. Even after reading his works, however, it is not at all easy to fully understand these philosophical views. This is because Plato did not systematically record his views, but rather wrote them out in a number of

DISCUSS HOW THE COURTS MAY INCORPORATE THE DIFFERENT AIMS/THEORIES OF SENTENCING DURING THE PROCESS OF SENTENCING OFFENDERS

2346 words - 10 pages A sentence is a decree of a punishment assigned to a defendant who was found guilty by a court, or fixed by law for a particular offence. If is a defendant found guilty, the type and amount of the sentence will depend on a number of factors, which every judge or magistrate must consider. Between these factors belong the six main aims of sentencing (retribution, denunciation, incapacitation or protection of the public, deterrence

This essay is about Hopper, and how his works are linked with psychology, particularly with the theories of Freud

618 words - 2 pages psychologically pervasive, being that they could envoke feelings even if they never existed. The author's main argument is that Hopper puposely lead the viewer to a dark side with the use of unheimlich theories, feelings Thanatos by using voids and the complexity of The Blind Field. Emerson stated: "In every work of genius, we recognize our own rejcted thought; they come back to us with a certain alienated majesty."Works CitedIverson, "In the Blind Field"Art History v21 no3 September 1998

An Explanation of How the Internet Works

845 words - 3 pages An Explanation of How the Internet Works Have you ever thought how the Internet works? The research found here will help answer that question. The Internet is a complicated system. There are two main protocols that the Internet uses that allow you to transmit and there are certain procedures that allow you to receive information via the Internet. The Internet is very large and many things have to work correctly for information to get to

Theories of aging, including the Telomere theory, oxidative stress and calorie restriction theories in regards to cell senescence

962 words - 4 pages The study of aging has received much attention in past decades. As the cliché goes, death is as inevitable as taxes, but scientists believe they might know why. No single theory has been deemed the cause of aging; rather there are many theories from a number of disciplines that overlap. If this is the case there must be a way to delay aging, thereby increasing lifespan. Three of the more published theories are the telomere, oxidative

Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations. Assess the difference between leadership and management processes

861 words - 3 pages Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations.To be successful, a manager must have many qualities, one of which is leadership. The success of any group activity usually depends heavily on leadership. It can therefore be advantageous for a manager to possess a broad understanding of the different theoretic styles of leadership. There are three main types of theory:· Trait Theories

Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations. Assess the difference between leadership and management processes

980 words - 4 pages Explain how an understanding of the main theories on leadership can benefit managers of organisations.Anybody can learn the finer points of management and how and when to implement them, follow policy and do things by the book, however this does not guarantee a manager's success. To be successful, a manager must have many assets, one of which is leadership.The success of any group activity usually depends heavily on leadership. It can therefore

How the Government of the United States of America Works

1365 words - 6 pages dreadful kind of connotation but I believe that it's essential, in a way, for the debates on important issues. “The filibuster is a perfect candidate for this line of questioning: So what?” Rawls stated in his article (Batch, 2010). The use of filibuster in Senate is to maintain the right to debate and modify legislations for Senators and this means maintaining the American's interests (Pildes, 2009). Intending to slow down the process of

Similar Essays

Evaluating The Main Theories Of Counselling

1793 words - 7 pages This essay will attempt to highlight and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the three main theories of counselling within the module covered this term. The three approaches in discussion are psychodynamics, cognitive behavioural and humanistic. The psychodynamic theory originated from Sigmund Freud, a medical doctor and philosopher (1856 - 1939) founded in the 1900s. Freud developed his ideas whilst working as a psychiatrist in Vienna

Being Tired Should Not Be Part Of The Aging Process

1621 words - 7 pages that up to 50 percent of adults complain of difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. So what's keeping you awake elderly? REM We know that significant changes in sleep architecture and our patterns - what experts call "sleep architecture" - as part of the normal aging process. Throughout life, the brain activity changes to properties and methods are expected throughout the night. Sleep cycles, composed of REM (rapid eye movement, when we

The Aging Process Essay

761 words - 3 pages Humanity has come a long way as we evolve and adapt to the changing environment. Through the years, we have managed to overcome several limitations, which in the past were nothing more than dreams. We succeeded in landing on the moon and communicating over long distance, yet there are still some boundaries we have yet to cross despite our best effort. Aging is an inevitable process of nature. While we cannot stop the ticking clock in our

The Results Of Aging Essay

1643 words - 7 pages Actually it's a report which was completed for OAC English ExcellentTHE RESULTS OF AGINGPrepared forMs. FergusonbyMark TrolleyAbstractThis report presents several aspects of aging. The report looks at a number of theories of why weage, the physical and mental changes we undergo as we age, and several ways of caring for theelderly.March 7, 1997TABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.....iiiINTRODUCTION..............1THEORIES OF WHY WE AGE