The Holy Roman Empire Between 1197 1218

2370 words - 9 pages

The Holy Roman Empire between 1197-1218

Between 1197 and 1218 the Holy Roman Empire became a medieval soap opera. The main characters were Pope Innocent III, Fredrick II, Phillip of Swabbia, and Otto IV. King Phillip of France would also play a major role along with Constance, mother of Fredrick II. The background from this period of 21 years was riveting. In 1197 Henry VI, king of Sicily, and the Holy Roman Empire died leaving his two year old son Fredrick II as king of Sicily. However Phillip of Swabbia and Otto IV would vie for the throne in the Holy Roman Empire. A double election concurred and both Otto and Phillip were elected. The two had a war which was ended in 1204 by the Pope, naming Otto the king. Yet in 1207, the kingship would change again and Phillip of Swabbia would become king. However just over a year after becoming king Phillip would be booted from the throne in 1208. Otto would take over as king of the Empire. However in 1211 Otto IV, would no longer be king of the Holy Roman Empire as he would be replaced by the young Fredrick II. Interestingly enough Fredrick II was raised by Pope Innocent III giving the pope some major power inside the Holy Roman Empire. During this time during the rule of Otto and Otto (after Phillip died in Otto’s second reign), two crusades were going on in which Otto participated in. During 1204 a crusade was brought forth by Innocent during the same time as a war over the throne was being fought. My essay is on the Holy Roman Empire between the death of Henry and the return of Fredrick II back to Germany in 1220. We will start in 1197 after Henry VI has died.
In 1197 the Imperial throne had created an opening with the death of Henry VI. No one had been elected into his spot; The Pope made his first major decision and made good use of the opportunity set before him. Innocent soon got not only the prefect of Rome, but the Senator of Rome to swear allegiance to the pope. Already in Innocents reign as the Pontificate of Rome, Innocent was asserting his power. The Germans had ruled the Holy Roman Empire for many years, the Italians were tired of German rule and wanted one of their own as Emperor, thus Pope Innocent III found it very easy to assert his power throughout Italy, and soon had the whole Italian Peninsula sworn to his allegiance. First he sent two papal delegates, cardinals, to Murkwood, demanding the restoration of the Romagna, and the March of Ancona to the church. Here Innocent suffered his first set back. When the two delegates returned with Murkwoods evasive answer Innocent suffered a minor set back. However the witty Pope would not suffer that much of one, as he soon ordered the mass excommunication of him and his whole legion from the church, and got the Papal legions to run him out of Italy. Once Emperor Henry VI died his four-year old son Fredrick II was named King of Sicily. The widowed mother of Fredrick II ruled for him but could not handle the pressure of the Norman nobles who...

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