The consumption of technical textiles is increasing rapidly in the past two decades. From the Textile Institute, the definition of technical textile is “textile materials and products manufactured primarily for their technical and performance properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative characteristics” (Byrne, 2000). This definition describes technical textiles briefly, but more close to the core of technical textiles than any other definitions. Technical textiles are divided in 12 main application areas by Messe Frankfurt: transport textiles, industrial products and components, medical and hygiene textiles, home textiles, clothing textiles, geotextiles, construction textiles, ...view middle of the document...
Compared with natural fibres, synthetic fibres, such as polyester, polyamide, PTFT, PP, carbon and glass, have a wider variety of applications. There are some specialty fibres, such as collagen, alginate, chitin and chitosan, which can be used to be essential materials for modern wound dressings and healing process. (Alistair, 2000)
Non-implantable materials are used to external environment on the body, such as wound care and bandages. The requirements of wound care are protections against infection, blood absorptions and healing promotions and applying medication to the wound in some instances. Wound dressing are consisted by three layers commonly – contact layers, absorbent pads and flexible base materials. The wound contact layer are used to prevent adherence of dressing to the wound and be removed the dressing easily. The absorbent layer is arranged between the contact layer and the base material. And the absorbent layer absorbs the blood or liquids and makes it as cushion coat to protect patients. The base materials are coated with an acrylic material to provide the means for some specify applications. Some specify fibres can be used for wound contact layers, such as the sodium calcium alginate gel, because “the gel is hydrophilic, permeable to oxygen, impermeable to bacteria, and contributes to the formation of new tissue”. (Alistair, 2000)
Bandages can be produced by woven, knitted and nonwoven process. To hold dressing in place over wounds, bandages are lightweight knitted or simple open weave fabrics which are made by cotton or viscose. For incorporated the structure to provide supporting and conforming characteristics, elasticated yarns are used in bandages production. Compression bandages can be used in the treatment and prevention of leg ulceration, and amount of compression when applied at a constant tension. For providing padding and preventing discomfort, patents use orthopaedic cushion bandages under plaster casts and compression bandages. Orthopaedic cushion bandages can be made of polyurethane foams, polyester, or polypropylene fibres and blends of natural or other synthetic fibers.
Extracorporeal devices are mechanical organs which can be used to pure blood as an artificial kidney, and can be artificial liver and the mechanical lung as well. For example, the artificial kidney can retain the unwanted material through a membrane which is a flat sheet or a bundle of hollow regenerated cellulose. However, extracorporeal devices required high level of design precision, materials and manufacture.
Implantable materials are used in effecting repair to the body for wound closure and replacement surgery. As other inside-body materials, the biocompatibility is a key property for implantable materials. There are four factors to influence the body reaction to the implant. The first and most important factor is porosity which influences the rate at which human...