Role Of Psychologists In Developing Torture Techniques

2260 words - 9 pages

Introduction
The United Nations Convention against Torture (1987) developed the most widely used definition of torture, stating that torture is “any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.”
An Enduring Relationship between Psychology and the United States Government Begins
According to Routh (1997), the field of psychology began to expand enormously after World War II. This is no coincidence, as psychology has been linked to the United States government and the military since the Second World War as a means of symbiotic gain (Summers, 2008).
Several subspecialties of psychology were needed and thus created during World War II (Summers, 2008), and each contributed to the war efforts in a different manner. During the war, psychologists facilitated the success of the Allies by screening and classifying potential servicemen (Mangelsdorff, 2006), searching for a system to break group and individual resistance (Herman, 1995), and conducting research investigations on several topics including leadership, aggression, and gun sight designs (Summers, 2008). Psychologists also wrote a series entitled The American Soldier, which demonstrated that United States servicemen were similar to servicemen in other countries in that they were all trying to avoid physical trauma and attempting to gain promotions in the ranks (Stouffer, 1949). By far, psychologists’ most substantial contribution to the war was their research on captives and analyses of Nazi documents and speeches, all directed at destroying detainees’ spirits (Summers, 2008). Psychologists also conducted the Strategic Bombing Survey (Leighton, 1949) with the breakthrough discovery that physical threats must be accompanied by the use of psychological strategies during interrogations.
In 1945, the Department of Defense began funding psychologists as reimbursement for their efforts during World War II (Summers, 2008). The Office of Naval Research, followed by the National Science Foundation, and soon other major service branches including the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences began employing psychologists to do research as well as funding the field of psychology, which contributed to its growth in size, both in interest and in research subspecialties (Summers, 2008). The Department of Defense was the largest institutional sponsor of...

Find Another Essay On Role of Psychologists in Developing Torture Techniques

Sharing Open Secrets in Training Future Generations of Clinical Psychologists

810 words - 3 pages must have a core set of coursework that acculturates them into theshared foundation of psychology.We also face increasing pressure to specialize earlier ina training program to accommodate new and "relevant" information and unique competenciesnot shared by other psychologists. It is difficult to find the time in our curricula toinsure that all of our students have both the core and specialization education. As such,the push toward specialization

Limiting the Use of Torture in America

618 words - 2 pages ) how do we find the victims and such? The usage of torture on individuals that have a reasonable doubt of committed a heinous crime should not happen. Though torture itself in the United States is not allowed. But should torture be allowed, it should only be used on those that committed crimes that can put you on death row or life in prison. Such as in Oklahoma where if “a capital offense sex crimes against a child under 14 years of

Use of Pathos in Writings on Torture

1487 words - 6 pages Torture is a loaded word. It conjures images in a readers' mind of any number of horrors, physical and mental. Many writers rely on this reaction and use pathos in their articles to illicit a strong response in their audience. Pathos is an emotional appeal used to gain sympathy and trust from the audience and works for people of all intellectual levels. It often casts the author or characters in a story as an Everyman, easy to identify, and

The Misuse of Torture in Rendition

1371 words - 5 pages What if someone you love just disappeared? The United States used this same idea to install a program known as the extraordinary rendition. It was put in place during the Clinton administration, but became publically recognized after 9/11. In the context of the movie, Rendition, rendition refers to the transfer of suspected terrorists outside of the United States to a foreign country, where harsh interrogation and torture takes place

The Central Role of Communication in Developing Trust and its Effect on Employee Involvement

2793 words - 11 pages one of the conflicts I faced during my employment and present my resolution to it. LITERATURE REVIEW In this paper I will be using research results found and presented by Gail Fann Thomas, Monterey Roxanne Zolin, and Jackie L. Hartman in their article titled: The Central Role of Communication in Developing Trust and its Effect on Employee Involvement; published in 2009. In this article, Thomas et al. conduct a study to see the extent that

Nick's role in the Great Gatsby along with the Fitzgeralds use of symbols and techniques

635 words - 3 pages The Great GatsbyThe novel "Great Gatsby" can be described as a series of events as seen through the eyes of a central figure around which the story takes place. This novel represents a materialistic society where success is equated with wealth and where the American dream is an object of desire for all people who wish to live a better life.Nick Carraway plays the vital role of the narrator, but in spite of this he is also seen as the role of a

Using Role Play for Developing Speaking Skill in English

2294 words - 10 pages for the language teachers. The teachers of English at engineering colleges should encourage the students towards learning speaking skill and explain its usefulness. They should use the effective techniques for developing their speaking skill. Role play is one of the most effective techniques that is cost free and easy to conduct in regular classroom. Teachers should make arrangements in the classroom for the role play performances. References

E-commerce and its role in developing countries

3104 words - 12 pages to foreign investors. Thus, building confidence in the government and re-assuring them. Though much more needs to be done in cross- border trading, WTO and GATS is helping countries benefit from e-commerce.E-COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIESBelief in the benefits of e-commerce has led to the adoption of e-commerce by developing countries. It helps developing countries by improving relationships across the value chain, increasing market reach, and

The world banks role in developing third world countries

702 words - 3 pages Research Question: Third World countries are often criticised for developing without considering the environment, as a result the destruction of natural rainforests and animal habitat is increasing at a rapid pace. Nevertheless the IMF and The World Bank continue to lend money to third world countries that use the money to finance environmentally destructive projects in a bid to develop quicker, should the World Bank and IMF be held accountable

Analysis Of "Mississippi Burning" In The Context Of Setting, Events, Characters And Their Role, Techniques And The Historical Period

1443 words - 6 pages , which was not the case.The film, "Mississippi Burning" contains a vast array of characters, but two main characters are Ward and Anderson, who are the FBI agents in control of this investigation.Agent Ward, acted by William Dafoe, is the more conservative type of person. He was described by Anderson as the type that crossed the t's, implying that Ward only knew one approach. Ward's role in the movie was also primarily dominating as he made all the

Legislation Governing The Roles of Psychologists in the State of Illinois

544 words - 3 pages The day upon which this composition is to be submitted, precisely 313 days will have passed since Illinois Senate Bill 2187 of the 98th General Assembly was referred to the appropriate House committee for consideration (IL-SB 2187, 2013); the bill, first filed in February of 2013, seeks to amend existing legislation governing the roles of psychologists in order to afford qualified clinicians in Illinois the authority to issue pharmaceutical

Similar Essays

How Do Psychologists Interpret The Role Of Genes In Behaviour?

1191 words - 5 pages There have been many debates in the field of psychology wether we behave the way we do due to nature or nurture. This controversy has many sides to it. Most of the time it can be concluded that they collaborate. But how do behavioural psychologists and geneticist actually find evidence that the genes play any role in our behaviour at all? Psychologist always try to find out what leads a person to a certain behaviour. On the nature side of view

Exploring How Psychologists Study The Role Of Play In Child Development

3324 words - 13 pages ), present evidence that play is seen as a mean of developing social skills and interpersonal relationships with others. The first section of the essay will present the different approaches psychologists use in the quest to learn about the role of children’s play and their related issues. This section will briefly define the nature of play and the different types of play that influence social development. The second section will

The Role Of The Japanese In Developing New Technology

1209 words - 5 pages The Role of the Japanese in Developing New Technology The character of industrial research and development went a dramatic change in the later parts in the 20th century. With most information about new research and technology being available on the public domain because of the nature of the market and legal constraints, the basic advantages of developing new fundamental technology was largely negated by companies, which had superior

The Role Of Connecting Unrelated Events In Developing Intelligence

2391 words - 10 pages On the Shoulder's of Giants: The Role of Connections in Developing Intelligence Abstract This paper provides motivation for making connections between unrelated events as a basis for intelligence. The ability to apply this extended information as a problem-solving technique instantiates the true nature of intelligence. Therefore, it is obvious the field of artificial intelligence should use the same approach. The way these connections are