Natural Law Essay

2546 words - 10 pages

"Wakacyjny wypoczynek turysty w kontekście zanieczyszczenia środowiska"

Współczesna turystyka jest jedną z prężniej działających dziedzin gospodarki. Z roku na rok coraz więcej osób decyduje się na wypoczynek poza swoim stałym miejscem zamieszkania. Ludzie preferują spędzane czasu wolnego na łonie piękna przyrody naturalnej, natomiast wielkie ośrodki zrewolucjonizowane przez nowoczesną technologię odnotowują spadki liczby odwiedzających. Zjawisko to ma związek z ciągle powiększającą się liczbą mieszkańców miast, gdzie na ogół panuje większe zanieczyszczenie powietrza, hałas oraz brak zielonych przestrzeni przeznaczonych na rekreację. Efektem tego, skala odwiedzających tereny atrakcyjne turystycznie pod względem walorów przyrodniczych, krajobrazów i ciekawych elementów fauny i flory ciągle wzrasta. Proces ten jest powszechnie znany. Pragnienie przebywania w bliskim kontakcie z naturą jest jak najbardziej pozytywnym faktem, jednak niesie za sobą wiele negatywnych skutków. Problem zanieczyszczeń środowiska z powodu wyjazdów turystycznych nie dotyczy jedynie zachowań ludzkich, ale także stale powstającej infrastruktury odpowiadającej na wzrastające potrzeby odwiedzających.

Baza noclegowa jest warunkiem koniecznym dla możliwości przebywania w danej recepcji turystycznej. Zalicza się do niej hotele, motele, pensjonaty, schroniska, domy wycieczkowe, kempingi, pola namiotowe, pokoje w prywatnych domach oraz wszelkie inne obiekty oferujące usługi noclegowe. Wzrost popularności terenu wśród podróżujących niejako wymusza powstawanie nowych obiektów. O ile agroturystyka nie przynosi tak wielu szkód, wiele elementów bazy noclegowej szkodzi środowisku. W kwestii zanieczyszczeń wywołanych przez nowopowstały obiekt wymienić można:

- emisje szkodliwych związków do powietrza w tym dwutlenek siarki, tlenek azotu, tlenek węgla poprzez wszelakie systemy grzewcze,

- zanieczyszczenia wód spowodowane wytwarzaniem ścieków przez obiekty noclegowe,

- wytwarzanie śmieci zarówno przez turystów jak i sam ośrodek.

Oprócz tego znacznie zaburzają one naturalny krajobraz, przyczyniają się do ubożenia szaty roślinnej i świata zwierzęcego oraz degradują gleby.

Ta sama sytuacja powtarza się w przypadku infrastruktury gastronomicznej i bazy towarzyszącej. Z jednej strony umożliwiają ludziom przebywanie w obszarze recepcji turystycznej, zaspokajają ich podstawowe potrzeby i uatrakcyjniają pobyt, z drugiej jednak przyczyniają się do niszczenia naturalnego charakteru regionu, zanieczyszczeń środowiska i powstawania miasteczek turystycznych.

Według wskaźników nagromadzenia odpadów komunalnych hotele na jedno miejsce noclegowe produkują 20 dm³ odpadów tygodniowo, co rocznie daje 1,2 m³. Jeśli chodzi o obiekty gastronomiczne, na jedno miejsce konsumpcyjne przypada 20 dm³ tygodniowo a 1 m³ odpadów komunalnych rocznie.

Negatywne skutki dla środowiska wywołanie ruchem turystycznym mają jednak swoje źródło w działalności człowieka. To dla zaspokojenia jego potrzeb...

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