Measurement Scales Paper
Marketers use scales to measure the assignment of numbers to objects or persons to represent quantities to their attributes (Aaker, 2007). This includes the measurement of agreements or disagreements that relates to attitudes or objects. For example, the measurement is in two parts, the item part, and the evaluative part. It is important to understand the level of characteristics of scales such as nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio because scales differ with respect to the scaling characteristics. Nominal scales label the objects. Ordinal scales rank the order and size difference of the respondents or their responses. Interval scales represent the equal distance between the descriptor. Finally, the ratio scales have a true zero point such as an actual number. These types of scales can be beneficial to an organization that needs to measure and understand various characteristics when analyzing questionnaires. It helps determine what can or cannot be said about the object and helps determine which statistical analysis should be used.
Nominal scales are a type of measurement most commonly used when conducting market research. This type of scale divides data into different categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhausted so that the data will be categorized into a group (McDaniel, 2006). Nominal scales use numeral to identify objects, groups, or individuals. When working with a questionnaire, nominal scales will allow the researcher to measure the results by labeling and identifying the objects to a number. The numbers are not added and have no true number value but are used as a reference to identify answers in the questionnaire. For example, if there were a questionnaire that was asking for the person’s gender, the answer choices would give the number one as female and the number two as male. Then if the individual were a female, she would answer the gender question with number one, which corresponds to female. When questionnaires are completed the numerical scales are the number and percentage of objects, such as 53 females (51.5 %) and 50 males (48.5%) (McDaniel, 2006).
Ordinal scales use labeling characteristics similar to nominal scales but in this case, it uses the numbers for the ability to order the data. This scale is a higher level of measurement and is used mostly to show the rank order of the items to be reviewed. The operations determine which is greater or lesser than another in the same list. For example, if there were a questionnaire about a person’s preference of restaurants, the questionnaire would give the respondent a few choices to review. If the example has five choices, the respondent would choose one to five with the number five as most desired. Then the individual will rank the most desired restaurant by placing the number five next to the name of the restaurant he or she prefers the most. This helps the questionnaire determine which restaurant is preferred...