Me Pagal Hun Essay

5210 words - 21 pages

CHAPTER 16 HANDOUT: Just-in-Time (JIT) and Theory of Constraints (TOC)

Reference: Operations Management by Mark A. Vonderembse and Gregory P. White.

At this time, there appear to be enough companies using JIT in other countries

to argue that it can work outside Japan. For example, many U.S. companies, such

as Harley-Davidson, have been successful with JIT. In addition, quite a few

Japanese companies, such as Toyota, Nissan, and Kawasaki, now use JIT methods

to operate plants very successfully in the United States.

Obviously, some changes must be made to accommodate cultural differences.

For example, much has been said about Japanese workers who do calisthenics and

sing the company song before work each day. In the United States, such programs

have not been successful. On the other hand, U.S. workers have developed their

own unique ways to show company pride, such as T-shirts and hats with company

slogans. Thus, the basic principles of JIT appear to be applicable anywhere even

though particular details may need modification based on cultural differences.

THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS

In the first edition of this book, we included a section about an interesting new

software package called OPT� (Optimized Production Technology), which had

been used by about 100 large companies to schedule production. However, aside

from a set of OPT� Rules, not much was known about the inner workings of that

software. Since then, the developer of OPT�, Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt, has expanded

his OPT� Rules into what he calls the Theory of Constraints (TOC). This theory

leads to an overall operating philosophy that is similar in some respects to JIT.

The Goal of Operations

Theory of Constraints begins by stating that the goal of a business organization is

to make money. To measure how well a company is doing in achieving that goal we

focus on three factors:

• Throughput: The rate at which the system generates money through sales.

• Inventory: The money the system invests in purchasing things the system

intends to sell.

• Operating expenses: The money the system spends in turning inventory into

throughput.

Using these three measures, the way to increase profits is to increase throughput

while decreasing both inventory and operating expenses. These relationships are

shown in Exhibit 17.9. Any action that does not move these measures in the

desired directions will not move an organization toward its goal.

EXHIBIT 17.9

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN

THROUGHPUT, INVENTORY,

OPERATING EXPENSES

, AND PROFITS

662

EXHIBIT 17.10 A CONSTRAINED PRODUCTION PROCESS

To see how these concepts are put into practice, consider the process indicated

in Exhibit 17.10. As shown, products A and B are produced using the same

process. The profit for product A is $80 per unit and 100 units can be sold per

week. For product B,...

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