Influenza A H1 N1 Virus Essay

2353 words - 9 pages

Introduction
In 1918-19 approximately 50 million deaths were a detriment of the Spanish H1N1 virus pandemic; a respiratory virus. According to the World Health Organization, the second Influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009 spread to more than 200 countries causing more than 18 000 deaths. Before the World Health Organization had announced the official end of the pandemic in August 2010, in July 2009 the World Health Organization sent out a phase 6 warning that H1N1 could soon be a global pandemic. It is important to recognize that the 2 different outbreaks had different A/H1N1strains effecting the world population; this suggests A/H1N1has a high ability for mutation, severely complicating the human body’s natural immune mechanism of antigenic drift. (Qi-Shi Du et al., 2010)
Epidemiology
According to the Swine flu investigation team on April 15 and April 17, 2009, novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was isolated from two epidemiologically unlinked patients in the United States. The same strain was identified in other countries such as Mexico and Canada. In the United States 60% of patients were 18 years of age or younger suggesting that the younger population was more susceptible to the transmission of S-OIV or the possibility that the older population had developed a small amount of antibodies from the 1976 swine influenza vaccine (H1N1). 18% of the patients had recently traveled to Mexico, and 16% were identified from school outbreaks. (France, Jackson & Schrag, 2010) The most common presenting symptoms were fever (94% of patients), cough (92%), and sore throat (66%); 25% of patients had diarrhea, and 25% were experiencing emesis. Therefore, the criteria characterizing the S-OIV infection are comparable to the seasonal influenza symptoms such as cough, sore throat, rhinorrhea, headache, and myalgia. Statistically, the transmission rates were observed to be consistent with the seasonal influenza in Hong Kong 2007. (Cowling, Fang, Riley, Malik Peiris & Leung, 2009) In the investigation conducted by the swine flu investigation team they determined that the transmission in households was completed in less than a week from host to host. (France, Jackson & Schrag, 2010) Still this is significantly less than the school outbreak transmissions (11.3% of household contacts, compared with >30% of school A students) The recommendation to reduce transmission is to encourage domestic discussions about prevention.
PDF Document Attached-Table 2. Symptom Profiles in Groups of Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Virus Infection Worldwide. (Writing Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 362:1708-1719May 6, 2010)
Etiology
An influenza virus possesses 8 genes, 6 derived from the triple North American swine virus lineages and 2 from the Eurasian swine virus lineage. (Cauchemez, Donnelly, & Reed, 2003) Influenza A is a part of the...

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