Industrialization In England Essay

1952 words - 8 pages

The world has changed in many ways throughout history. Industrialization has changed England in many ways. The Industrial Revolution was too hard on the men, women, and children in England.
The changes that occurred in the economy and society in Britain during the late 18th and 19th century is known as the Industrial Revolution (McCloskey Int.). The Industrial Revolution was a drawn-out process that transformed Britain’s economy from the production of goods by hand to the production of goods by machine (Thackerary 1). During this time the number of people employed in industrial manufacturing, making many different goods, and especially making textiles, iron goods, metal waves, and pottery increased dramatically (McCloskey Int.). At the end of the 17th Century, Britain owed more to revenue demands than protectionism. After the Bubble Act of 1720, company flotation was prohibited and publically raised the capital in manufacturing (Mathias 33,34). The increase of social cost of transition to the increasingly industrial urbanized economy was due to the lack of public control over growing towns and the lags of development of essential public services, from small denomination currency to an effective police force and local government. The state did nothing to help organize innovation, mobilization capital, or conducting enterprise (Mathias 34). The banking legislation had control over the size of individual banks in England and Wales (Mathias 34). For the first time in history the population growth and economic growth occurred together over a long period of time without suffering (McCloskey Int.).
During the Industrial Revolution working people went to live and work in towns and cities. These workers would get jobs involving trading, retailing, transport and domestic services, and manufacturing. By the end of the period less than one third of the population lived in the country and made their living from their land (McCloskey Int.). In 1851, the employment of textiles rose from 1.3 million to over 1.5 million by 1911. Clothing went from nine hundred thousand to over 1.2 million workers. Engineering and metal working rose from over half a million workers to nearly two million. In the paper and printing industry the employment increased five-fold to nearly four hundred thousand employees. Employment in the chemical, oil, and soap industries increased over four-fold to two hundred thousand workers (Mingay 27). By 1849, there were twelve steel-pen factories employing an average of one hundred fifty-four employees in each factory. Mechanized industries employed less than two million workers in 1851 (Mingay 26). In 1871 there were one hundred forty-five factories making boots and shoes, and each factory employed an average of one hundred twenty-five workers. There were fifty-eight cheap clothing factories that employed an average of one hundred thirty-six workers a piece. The expansion of the market at home and overseas was the ultimate reason for the...

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