In Silico Prediction Of Genomic Islands In Mannheimia Haemolytica Published Complete Genomes And Their Comparative Analysis With Reference To M425

2210 words - 9 pages

Comparison and sharing of Genomic Islands within the strains
The coding regions of the predicted GIs of each genome were sorted out. The sequences of the proteins present in the predicted GIs of each strain of M. haemolytica under study retrieved on local system and were used as query for an organism-specific BLASTP (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) search against each of the other strains of under study. This was done in order to identify their homologues in the each other strains to understand the relatedness of GIs between these strains. This revealed that M. haemolytica USMARC-183 sharing 79.09% of its ORFs of GIs with M. haemolytica M42548 and noted as highest relatedness while only ...view middle of the document...

These unique GIs are mainly coding for putative proteins and ABC transporters. Especially the parts of ORFs of GI-17 coding for aminoglycoside transferases (MHH_c22540 to MHH_c22570) and lipidA (MHH_c22090), outermembrane proteins (MHH_c22100) are unique and indicating this strain become more virulent and obtained acquired antibiotic resistance through HGT. The part of M-GI-3 this is unique for M42548 strain and coding for β-lactamase (MHH_c02670, MHH_c02680) evident that this strain evolved recently and obtained resistance against lactam inhibiting antibiotics.

Only one Genomic Island (M-GI-10) of M42548 strain was completely homologous to all other strains under study except with M. haemolytica D171 in which it was absent. This homologue was observed to be in reverse orientation in USMARC-183 strain, and in same orientation in other strain genomes. It was interesting to note that one whole GI coded as M-GI-7 was homologous to M. haemolytica strains namely D174, USMARC-183 and USMARC-2286. But it was observed in opposite orientation in all three strains when comparing with M42548 (Supplementary Table 1).

Oligopeptide ABC transporter (MHH_c15100, MHH_c15110) of M-GI-11 present in two copies of all strain Genomes except D171strain having one ORF. Two sets of Carbonic anhydrase proteins (MHH_c15120, MHH_c15130) present in this GI flanked by Oligopeptide ABC transporter set, this combination is absent D171 and D174 strains. A group of six hypothetical proteins flanked by integrating conjugative element protein present in this M-GI-11, but this stretch is completely absent in D171 strain. While complete stretch of these ORFs was homologous in the two strains of this study i.e. USMARC-183 and SAM-185 but observed in opposite orientation. For surprise this combination was absent in strain USMARC-2286 except for flanking proteins on each side but only three middle hypothetical proteins were absent in case of D174. In Strain D153 only one hypothetical protein that was flanked by integrating conjugative element protein was absent and rest of stretch was homologous and in the same orientation as of M42548 strain.

Figure 5: The diagram representing the percentage of genes present in the putative GIs of M. haemolytica strains shared with M. haemolytica M42548 strain (M.h = Mannheimia haemolytica)
Earlier it was thought that essential genes, like those encoding ribosomal RNA, are unlikely to be transferred successfully since recipient taxa would already bear functional orthologues, however it was proved that rRNA operons also can be transferred by Horizontal transfer in Thermomonospora chromogena (Yap et.al, 1999). There was another study showed there is a chance for the horizontal transfer of segments of 16S rRNA genes between Streptococcus anginosus group (Schouls et al, 2003). In this study predicted GI of M42458 strain M-GI-7 found to be coding for large and small sub units of ribosomal proteins (MHH_c07540 - MHH_c07700). This entire GI was also...

Find Another Essay On In silico prediction of Genomic Islands in Mannheimia haemolytica published complete genomes and their comparative analysis with reference to M425

In-silico analysis of phytocompounds for inhibition of nAChRs receptor mediated lung cancer

2034 words - 8 pages products from plants have benefits like anti tumor, anti-inflammatory, and so on. This will add additional support in the management of lung cancer and associated complication. This study was planned to identify the natural compounds which have more affinity to the nicotine Acetyl-CoA receptor (nAChR) than the nicotine by in silico evaluation using Auto dock software. About six compounds were subjected and proved with preclinical studies were

Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman contrast in the ways of their different writing structure, subject tone, and topics discussed in the majority of their published works

787 words - 3 pages different. But they both wrote some of the best poetry this country had ever seen. Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman contrast in the ways of their different writing structure, subject tone, and topics discussed in the majority of their published works.First, the most forthcoming evidence of their differences would be the structure that the poets use to express themselves through. Whitman uses free verse in his poems. A clear representation of

Critical analysis of how and why controversial issues could be /has been included in your teaching, with specific reference made to curriculum req

1316 words - 6 pages Teachers in every subject area face the challenge of teaching content that may be controversial in some way. The global origin of Language, for example, allows teachers to explore not only different cultures and traditions but also contentious issues as environment, sustainability and historical or current event such as immigration. As a Lote teacher, I personally believe that such issues are a perfect vehicle for students to grapple with their

With reference to the concepts of Post modernity discuss "24" in terms of its contradiction in narrative, genre and representation

3347 words - 13 pages With reference to the concepts of Post modernity discuss 24 in terms of its contradiction in narrative, genre and representation.This essay will discuss the broad concepts of representation, narrative and genre in relation to the theory of Post modernity.The text I have chosen to illustrate the points raised in this essay is a series that is currently running it's third season on TV called 24, broadcast by Fox Television and created by Robert

‘No poet, no artist of any art, has his complete meaning alone.’ (TS Eliot, ‘Tradition and the Individual Talent’). Discuss with reference to at l

1609 words - 7 pages the text. Critical theorist Frank Kermode, found the art of imitation a pleasing one, on analysis of the canon Kermode states that canonical texts ‘completely locked in their times, their texts as near frozen as devout scholarship can make them, their very language more and more remote’(Kermode: p 29) . Yet he goes on to say that paradoxically, writers works, ‘by this same fact, are set free of time’. Kermode is arguing that because of new

A Comparative Technical Analysis of Banking Sector with Special to Public and Private Sector Bank

1323 words - 6 pages Analysis and Interpretation In this chapter, the data collected were systemically processed, tabulated and made suitable for analysis and interpretations. It was a study on stock price movement in selected banking companies through data collected for the nine months from July to March. The performance is analyzed for the stock prices of Current market price, Yearly high, Yearly low, Last completed financial year value, Sales, Operating

Comparative Analysis: Buddhism In India And China

1500 words - 6 pages Comparative Analysis: Buddhism In India And China Buddhism is the non-theistic religion and philosophical system founded in North-East India in the sixth century by Gautama Siddharta (the Buddha). His followers seek to emulate his example of perfect morality, wisdom and compassion culminating in a transformation of consciousness known as enlightenment. Buddhism teaches that greed, hatred and delusion separate the individual from the true

People's positions in the world are shaped by discourse - With reference to face, power and solidarity

2218 words - 9 pages In many ways people's positions in the world are their positions in discourse, since the power to shape the world is to a large degree the power to shape how people talk about the world' (Johnstone). Discuss with reference to the categorisation of participants by each other and to the notions of face and power and solidarity.This essay chooses to look at the recent controversy surrounding the alleged racist row in TV's Big Brother house. The row

Pirate Radio Stations in the 1960s and 1970s Britain (with reference to recent cultural production)

1495 words - 6 pages but also regularly listened to by some state officials and widely praised by many popular musicians of that time. However, some “pirates” did not play fair their game and confrontations between became frequent, culminating in the murder of Reg Calvert, owner of Radio City. Calvert made a deal with Radio Caroline in which he received a powerful and expensive transmitter. Unfortunately the deal fell through, but the transmission remained with

With reference to selected management theories and drawing on specific examples, discuss why managers need to be aware of limitations and simplifications present in some of these theories

4063 words - 16 pages get work done with and through others, while at the same time winning their confidence, respect, loyalty and willing cooperation' (Palmer, S 2003). This is one of the best concepts of leadership. However, the only comment is that leadership play a great role not just to get work done, but also in order to achieve the organization goals as well as planning for the future and encouraging the employees to innovate. Third, in 1948 Omar, N defined

With Reference to the four Kings in Macbeth discuss Shakespeare's view of Kingship

3311 words - 13 pages With Reference to the four Kings in Macbeth discuss Shakespeare's view of KingshipMacbeth was written and performed in 1606 at the time that James VI of Scotland came to the English throne as James I of England following the reign of Elizabeth I, thus forming the United Kingdom. This was at a time of great political upheaval and uncertainty in England and one particular issue was who Elizabeth's heir should be. Becoming king by divine right was

Similar Essays

Analysis Of The Provision In Your Setting With Reference To Theory And Guidance

1093 words - 5 pages This assignment will analyse the provision in a setting with reference to theory and guidance, using the National standards, the EYFS guidelines and OFSTED. I currently work in Tameside College Nursery as a Nursery Nurse. My job requires me to work with children between the ages of six months old and five years old as well as being responsible for a small group of children known as my key children. We have three rooms, Ladybird room, Caterpillar

Assess The Impact Of The Invention Of Transistors On Society With Particular Reference To Their Use In Microchips And Microprocessors

406 words - 2 pages ; head office, between parents and young children away from home. Mobile phones allowed contact between people who don't have access to a landline phone.The development of robots having higher intelligence and cheaper cost is only possible with the extensive use of microprocessors. Robots are now used in large factories to do repetitive manual work once done by human beings.The development of bombs having very high accuracy has changed the value of

Comprehensive Analysis Of Bivalent Promoters In Mammalian Genomes

5424 words - 22 pages . Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.6086307. Kikuta, H., Fredman, D., et al., 2007. Retroviral enhancer detection insertions in zebrafish combined with comparative genomics reveal genomic regulatory blocks - a fundamental feature of vertebrate genomes. Genome biology, 8 Suppl 1. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2007-8-s1-s4. Kouzarides, T., 2007. Chromatin modifications and their function. Cell, 128(4), pp.693–705. Available at: http

Analysis Of 1984 In Reference To Censorship

1885 words - 8 pages II, a time filled with political tension and great fear. At this point in history Communism was on the rise, the Red Scare spread fear all throughout the world that Communism would taint their land. The book painted a very vivid image of the scary idea of Communism becoming an overwhelming superpower. This seemed like an all to realistic possibility at the time. This book took peoples’ greatest fear and amplified it, projecting a terrifying future