Hnadel Best Essay

934 words - 4 pages

Children age five go through a lot of changes in their development. Various scholars and scientists generated different approaches to explain the changes in conduct and development of the children. Sally, who is in kindergarten, shows behavioural issues in her first week of school. In order to understand the behavioural issues of Sally, approaches such as psychoanalytic, cognitive, behavioural and social cognitive, ethological, humanist, and bio-ecological approach should be apply to her situation.
The psychoanalytic approach is a developmental theory mainly popularized by Sigmund Freud. He is famous for postulating the three personalities, the “Id”, “ego”, and the “superego”. The ...view middle of the document...

Piaget believes that at this stage, children are very self-centered (Santrock et al., 2008). This might be the reason why Sally lacks focus in class and makes inappropriate behaviour because she only thinks about herself and not minding the welfare of others.
Furthermore, the behavioural and social cognitive theory is another developmental theory that put emphasis on behaviour, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development (Santrock et al., 2008). The “operant conditioning” is a theory created by B.F. Skinner focusing on how a person’s behaviour can be changed not by emotions and feelings, but by rewards and punishments (Santrock et al., 2008). Clearly, Skinner points out that a person’s behaviour significantly changes over the course of development by receiving a reward or a punishment for his/her actions. Given that Sally lash out with inappropriate behaviour in class, she certainly receives punishments from the teacher for her inappropriate behaviour. However, Sally’s inappropriate behaviour in class suggests that her behavioural skills and cognitive abilities are not yet developed to the fullest.
The ethological approach of child development is a direct observation of behaviour in a natural setting and seeks similar patterns of behaviours across human throughout the course of evolution (Heterington, Parke, and Locke, 2003). This approach mainly focuses on biology and how biology explains the overall makeup of an individual, discovering the communication abilities of an individual and the capacity of change over stability in humans (Santrock et al., 2008). Since the ethological approach gives emphasis on change than stability, the biological makeup and communication abilities of a person will transform into a new one throughout the development. In the case of Sally, she continually changes as the week progress in school, from being easygoing to becoming irritable and from attentively listening to becoming uninterested in class. Therefore, it is apparent that changes in Sally’s conduct and development are ongoing....

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