Gardner's Theory of Intelligence
Gardner's theory suggests that within each human there are a variety of intelligence areas that one may succeed within. He places titles upon these areas, which include logical mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. These categories allot for people who are better in certain areas For example, a person may be very good at playing an instrument (musical), however that same person may be horrible at sports (bodily-kinesthetic).
I.Q. scores can be relatively inaccurate on account of the presence of these "multiple intelligences". Alfred Binet saw this problem and also saw it as unfair to children who may be judged wrong and therefor tracked wrongly in schools. In result, he founded a set of 58 tests which can be administered to calculate what he coined "mental age". This number could then be used in a formula called the " intelligence quotient". This formula is thought to give a better judgement on a child's capability to do well in school, rather than just their intelligence.
2- There are two common methods of ability grouping.
The first is between class grouping. This method is also known as tracking. This concept puts children of similar abilities into a set sequence of classes. For example, in NY State high schools, there is usually a general track, regents track, honor regents track, and an AP track (although these are subject to change in NY). In general, the between class ability grouping technique is not too effective. All too often, the teaching of lower ability tracks is inferior, and the students often suffer low self esteem, lower levels of motivation, as well as being teased by other students. Also this technique doesn't allow for the idea of multiple intelligence, so a student may be subject to taking a low level math course, even though history may be his major downfall. Also social development is restricted to those within the students' ability level.
The other method is within class ability grouping. This method groups according to ability in certain subject areas. An example would be a student who is in a lower reading class, but resumes the rest of his classes on a normal level for his age. The implications are less alienating for the student in lower levels, and tend to actually motivate them, more so than between class grouping.
3 There are a few ways of learning and processing...