Emergence Of Critical Thinking And The Impact On Education

2188 words - 9 pages

This literature review will examine the emergence of critical thinking in history and its impact on education. Early work in critical thinking and methods for teaching critical thinking will be reviewed as well as modern day use of critical thinking. Finally, this paper will examine the benefits of critical thinking in the classroom.
Purpose of critical thinking
Dr. Richard Paul (2006) defines critical thinking as the “disciplined art of ensuring that you use the best thinking you are capable of in any set of circumstances.” It is essentially using the best information available to make the best decisions possible. Critical thinking relies on one’s ability to ask themselves questions about a given topic or situation and be critical of the answers those questions generate.
This can lead to questions based on previous questions. These should result in a deeper understanding of the topic or situation at hand. At the very least, one realizes that they need further information before they can make the right decision. If critical thinking is practiced properly the thinker is being a critic of his own thoughts at all times, deciding if they are fair-minded and appropriate. This requires intellectual humility and discipline that is developed over time and with practice (Paul 2006).
History of Critical Thinking
Over 2,500 years ago Socrates was challenging intellectuals of his time through series of questions which ultimately explored the depth and logic of their ideas. This probing questioning often uncovered many public speakers as smooth talkers with shallow ideas, inadequate evidence and self-contradictory ideas (Paul, 1997). Socrates believed that one cannot simply take the word of those in authority to have a strong grasp or insight into all matters simply due to their position. He showed that, like anyone else, they were prone to confusion and irrational thought. By asking deep and profound questions, he was able to ascertain just how worthy an idea was of belief (Paul, 1997).
The method described above is now referred to as “Socratic Questioning” and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy (Paul, 1997). While it is useful for the questioner to understand the depth of knowledge of his target, it is perhaps even more valuable to the person being questioned. When one undergoes such questioning, they will themselves see the holes in their logic, and any irrational thought or lack of thought in their ideas. Socratic questioning highlights the need for clarity and logical consistency, something that is crucial for all critical thinkers.
In his time, Socrates was able to question commonly held beliefs and explanations and find which of these were reasonable and logical and those which, although appealing, were not. These beliefs and explanations might lack evidence or even rational foundation and Socrates often brought this to light through his teaching through questioning (Paul, 1997).
In...

Find Another Essay On Emergence of Critical Thinking and the Impact on Education

The Economic Basis of Slavery and its Impact on the Emergence of the United States

598 words - 2 pages economy (which was built on the backs of the slaves). These goods were then exported to Europe and traded for manufactured goods. These products would then be brought to Africa to purchase the slaves (Unknown, 2009). The system was self-perpetuating and the traders were making money at every point on the triangle.Slavery had an enormous impact on the emergence and history of the United States. First, and ashamedly so, the cheap labor and the

Critical Thinking and Decision Making Critical Thinking is defined as the systematic evaluation of arguments based on explicit rational criteria

626 words - 3 pages Critical Thinking and Decision MakingCritical Thinking is defined as the systematic evaluation of arguments based on explicit rational criteria (Browne and Stuart IX). Deductive reasoning is the first tool that reasonable people can use to improve their critical thinking skills. Critical thinking requires people to be able to find the faulty reasoning and deductions in an argument. Incorrect or inconclusive assumptions must be identified and

Decisions and the components of critical thinking

1066 words - 4 pages want to fall into any of these fallacies, so we made our decision based on facts and what we believed was true.Critical thinking techniquesMy husband and I used almost all of the critical thinking techniques to come to a decision on whether or not to have a child. These techniques played an important role in our decision. Without using these critical thinking techniques we probably would not have been able to get through any of the previous critical

The Importance of Critical Thinking and Ethical Decision Making on Social Work

1172 words - 5 pages and lastly, for the worker to act and then reflect on the outcome. To work through the ethical framework the social worker needs to be able to give critical thought to the issue as it arises and then use those critical thinking skills to complete the framework. When looking at client or social issues from a critical thought process, you should ask is everything of equal importance or is some part of it more important than another. Critically

Critical Thinking Styles and Forces of Influence: The basic concept of critical thinking

1370 words - 5 pages ) systems and structures set up to keep them apprised on ongoing events, (b) the people around them who volunteer information and can be approached in search of trouble signs, clues, and missing pieces of puzzles, (c) the values of the organization, which point people in certain directions and define the critical variables in a complex array of possibilities, and (d) the manager's own direct experienceOur basic concept of critical thinking is, at root

The Impact of Education on the Renaissance

702 words - 3 pages The gigantic effect that education had on Renaissance society was greatly stimulated by the new development of humanism. Humanism was responsible for the curiosity of many intellects during the Renaissance, which ultimately led to the discoveries and developments that made the Renaissance such a remarkable time. It proposed a different way of thinking, unprecedented by scholars. Without humanism and the educational interest that it brought about

the impact of the internet on education

793 words - 3 pages purchasing those products online. These types of consumers feel that visiting the market and examining the products personally are a much better option than assuming the products and ordering them online. Most times, products do not match with the quality levels which are showcased online. In such cases, consumers usually opt for the feedback mechanism which is fulfilled by way of e-commerce itself (Gallegos & Senft, 2010). Beside the impact of the internet on necessary communication and purchases, it also effects the education strategy and student lives.

Explain the emergence of the Ku Klux Klan in American history and the impact it had on African Americans in the South

1629 words - 7 pages The emergence of the Ku Klux Klan had a huge impact on African Americans in the South, as they lead many terrorizing rituals and racist lynching's directed at former freed black slaves. The Klan was formed and reformed three times over the course of history each time the Klan had different objectives, but each Klan shared the common view of white supremacy. The Klan recruited many well known members of predominately white communities including

The Elements of Critical Thinking

613 words - 3 pages Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing and/or evaluating information gathered from or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2011) Critical thinking consists of elements such as reasoning and intellectual standards that enable logical

The Importance of Critical Thinking

2438 words - 10 pages The Importance of Critical Thinking When you hear the words—science, formulas, scientific methods, experiments, procedures—where do you go? Do you turn off? As an educator in the field of science, how can I turn you on? For some people it may be second nature to notice whether or not descriptions (in newspapers, various publications, on television or in professional journals) make any sense logically or are avoiding some obviously

The Positive Impact of Technology on Education

668 words - 3 pages The Positive Impact of Technology on Education Today, technology is found everywhere in education.There are computers in many of the classrooms and schools contain computer labs, or at least numerous computers in the library available to students. In my paper, I want to discuss some of the positive and negative effects that technology has on education. Throughout my schooling, I’ve seen technology go through different stages of

Similar Essays

Critical Thinking: Impact And Benefits Essay

983 words - 4 pages , happier, and more productive. (Paul and Elder, 2006) From this stand, critical thinking is an eminently practical goal and value. It is focused on an ancient Greek ideal of living an examined life. It is based on the skills, the insights, and the values essential to that end. It is a way of going about living and learning that empowers us in quite practical ways.Benefits of Critical ThinkingCritical thinkers can pursue an issue in depth, covering

The Impact Of Technology On The Critical Thinking Of Tertiary Students In School X

1199 words - 5 pages matriculated to this level. Although this is what is expected, over time behavioural patterns have shown that this is not the case. The argument is that, university students seem to be spending a great amount of time on their technological devices engaging in activities that does not stimulate critical thinking. According to Wolpert (2009), “technology plays an important role in our lives; however, skills such as critical thinking and analysis have been

The Impact Of Logical Fallacies In Critical Thinking

740 words - 3 pages . This paper focuses on defining the concept of logical fallacies, and identifying three logical fallacies and analyzing their impact on the critical thinking process.If we are to understand the concept of logical fallacies, we must first define what an argument is and the components that make up an argument. According to (Humanist Learning Center), an argument is a logically grounded statement of a proposition with one or more premises. The

Critical Thinking: Beneficial In Nursing Education

747 words - 3 pages prepared to function in a dynamic patient care setting. Complex situations require a nurse to fully interpret all information, analyze it, and come up with the best solution to the problem. Nurses should be capable of using higher level critical thinking in order to achieve the best outcome for patients using their nursing diagnosis (Lunny, 2010). CT in nursing education encourages “thinking about thinking, with specific types of domain knowledge