This is a diabetes case study of Mr. Charles D., a 45-year old male who is experiencing classic symptoms of hyperglycaemia. Recently divorced and living alone in a new home, Charles has complained of recent weight loss, excessive thirst, and frequent urination. He is a busy CEO for a major technological company. This case study for Charles will educate him as to what are the causes of diabetes: explain the presenting signs and symptoms emphasize the psycho-social impact to his amended life, and instruct him in the economic impact that he and millions share.
Vitally important for Charles is education and giving him the tools to successfully manage his disease. Charles will verbalize an understanding of all aspects of the disease and the psychosocial impact to his life, family, and business. These issues will be addressed in the text of this case study.
Diabetic Incidence Overview
According the Center of Disease Control and prevention, (CDC) from 1980 to 2005, the crude incidence of diagnosed diabetes increased 124% from 3.3 per 1000 to 7.4 per 1000. The prevalence of Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes in the United States of all Ages in 2007 reported by the National Diabetes Statistics were startling. A total of 23.6 million people who equal 7.8 % of the population have diabetes. The estimated cost in the United States in 2007 was 174 billion dollars. This dollar amount includes the direct and indirect cost 17.9 million people diagnosed and 5.7 million people undiagnosed.
Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes
The condition of diabetes ensues when “The pancreas stops making insulin, due to a viral attack on pancreas cells because an autoimmune response makes the body attack the insulin producing cells. The body desperately looks for an energy source because the cells are not getting glucose. It starts to break down muscle tissue and fat for energy. Type 2 happens gradually with increasing insulin resistance so weight loss is not as noticeable. (Manzela, 2007).
Classic symptoms of diabetes usually presented with newly diagnosed diabetics are: hyperglycaemia, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, fatigue, blurred vision, headaches, and unexplained weight loss. Ketone bodies are found in the urine, this abnormal finding occurs when fatty acid by-products (acetones) are excreted in the urine. The ketones are present from a lack of the insulin hormone used to metabolize fats and carbohydrates. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication which results from minimal useful insulin hormone in the body, hypoglycaemia, or insufficient food intake (American Diabetes Association, 2008).
Effects of Diabetes as a Chronic Process
Long-term effects of diabetes can cause many serious complications: heart disease, stroke, blindness, amputations, and kidney disease and nerve damage. These complications are usually progressive and develop over time due to poor control of blood glucose levels. High blood glucose levels cause a narrowing of all the...