Conclusive Results For Premature Caesarean Births

1222 words - 5 pages

Over the past few years, the rate of caesarean birth has increased tremendously (March of Dimes Foundation, 2011). Caesarean birth, also known as a C-section, is a steadily growing surgical procedure. With the rate in 2007 at 32 percent, about one in three mothers now gives birth by C-section (Rabin, 2012). An infant is considered full term between 37 and 42 weeks, and an infant born before 37 weeks is premature or a preemie. C-sections contribute to the number of babies born late pre-term between 34 and 36 weeks gestation (March of Dimes Foundation, 2011). Babies born at this time might be viewed as healthy, but they are more likely to have medical problems than babies born a few weeks later at full-term. An infant born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation are more likely to have problems with breathing, feeding, maintaining his or her temperature, and jaundice. Since a baby’s brain and lungs mature late in pregnancy, C-sections pose respiratory risks for small preemies (Rabin, 2012).
The course of prenatal development is a very crucial part of human development. At this time the baby grows in three trimesters, the first is the germinal period in which the egg is fertilized. During the embryonic period cells differentiate into the blastocyst. The blastocyst is made up of three layers the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. The ectoderm will develop into the skin and nervous systems, the mesoderm will become the muscle and skeletal systems, and the endoderm will become the digestive and respiratory systems. In the last stage of prenatal development, known as the fetal period, the early body structures and systems continue to develop. The brain starts to mature much faster, and lastly the lungs begin to expand and contract, preparing the muscles for breathing (Cherry, 2012). A surfactant within the lung serves as a hormone of labor that initiates the mother to go into labor. (Peaceful Parenting, 2008). The signaling protein, surfactant A or SP-A also helps immune cells called macrophages (Peaceful Parenting, 2008). These cells help fight off infections in the lungs by stopping any bacteria, viruses, and fungi from infiltrating the lung’s airways. In most initiation of labor the release of SP-A is timed carefully to start only when the fetus is able to survive outside the womb. Women who go into pre-term labor frequently have an infection of the membranes that surround the fetus, and the number of macrophages in the wall of the uterus increases with the start of pre-term labor (Peaceful Parenting, 2008). Disrupting the normal process of birth can cause a cascade of complications – from difficulty in latching, poor breathing, increased infection, decreased immunity, under development, failure to thrive, and a increase in SIDS (Peaceful Parenting, 2008).
Small babies who are improperly growing in the womb that are delivered prematurely through C-section, develop more respiratory problems than those induced vaginally (Rabin, 2012). This raises a high...

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